Chapter I Introduction
1.1 The Background of the Task
Since ?the ?21st ?century, ?with ?the ?deepening ?development ?of ?the ?global ?economy ?and the frequent exchanges in the world, news has played an indispensable role in people's life. At the same time, the information updates very fast and people have a wider demand for news information. ?Therefore, ?the ?spread ?of ?news ?has ?undoubtedly ?opened ?a ?window ?for Chinese people to know the foreign countries. Therefore, the translation of foreign news into Chinese is a good way to help Chinese readers learn more about international political news.
The translator selected the source text from the current political news column of The Washington Post and analyzed the practical process of translation. The Washington Post is a national English newspaper with a wide range of content and a wide range of authority. The Washington ?Post ?is ?the ?largest ?and ?oldest ?newspaper ?in ?Washington ?D.C. ?The translator ?selected ?the ?text ?on ?the ?website ?from 2017 ?to ?2018, ?and ?initially ?translated ?20 pieces of news. After comprehensively balancing the difficulty and the number of words, the author ?finally ?selected ?10 ?pieces ?of ?them ?to ?complete ?this ?translation ?report, ?the selected ?news ?is ?relatively ?close ?to ?reality, ?both ?of which ?are ?recent ?political ?events. Secondly, these events have significant international influence, including: Trump pledges new wave of ‘major sanctions’ on North Korea after call with China’s Xi; China’s ‘long arm’ ?of ?influence ?stretches ?ever ?further; ?Trumps ?set ?to ?launch two ?real ?estate ?projects ?in India, ?despite ?conflict-of-interest ?concerns; ?France’s ?Macron ?visits ?China ?to ?talk ?fairer trade and the future, etc.?
1.2 The Goal of the Task
The key point of this translation report is to study the Chinese translation of political news ?according ?to ?the ?three ?principles ?of ?Skopos Theory. ?Compared ?with ?literary ?texts, there ?is ?not ?much ?subjective ?expression ?in ?the ?political ?news ?report, ?the ?political ?news language is more concise, accurate, objective, and logical. Ordinary readers are the main receivers ?of ?news, ?but ?people's ?level ?of education ?is ?uneven. ?At ?the ?same ?time, ?as international exchanges continue to be closer and closer, the translation of current political news is becoming more and more important. Therefore, the main task of the translator is to convey the news information effectively and objectively to the readers and achieve the communicative purpose.
First of all, considering the target readers of the translation, the translator chooses to translate the selected news, with the aims to make Chinese readers understand the current political ?news ?in ?various ?countries ?and ?regions, ?at ?the ?same ?time, ?the ?political ?news ?can also attract more Chinese readers.
Secondly, through this translation practice, it can help the translator understands the current ?political ?events, ?accumulate ?the ?knowledge ?in this ?field, ?improve ?the ?translation skills, and rich the translation experience.
Finally, the primary role of political news is to disseminate the latest and significant news to the public. However, considering the English and Chinese differences in cultural connotation and expression, the accuracy of the translation directly affects the quality of the whole translation. Therefore, the translated news can attract more readers, enhance the readability ?of ?the ?translated ?text, ?increase ?the ?attention ?of ?the article ?and ?achieve ?the purpose of translation by studying the translation of the text and ensuring the accuracy of the translated information, embellishing the translated text and news headlines.
Chapter II Translation Theory
2.1 Definition of the Skopos Theory
In 1978, the Skopos Theory emerged in Germany. The Skopos Theory is the core of functional translation theory. The creation of Skopos Theory frees the translator from the original ?text. ?Since ?its ?creation, ?the ?Skopos ?Theory ?has ?gone ?through ?three ?phases: ?the preliminary ?phase ?(1971-1977), ?the ?development ?phase ?(1978-1987) ?and ?the ?maturity phase (1988-present).
Hans ?Vermeer, ?a ?German ?translation ?theorist, ?first ?proposed ?the ?three ?guiding translation ?principles ?of ?Skopos ?Theory: ?the ?Skopos rule, ?the ?coherence ?role ?and ?the fidelity ?rule. ?After ?laying ?the ?theoretical ?foundation, ?Vermeer ?regards ?the ?purpose ?of ?the target ?text as ?the ?factor ?that ?determines ?the ?translation ?method ?and ?strategy, ?and ?regards the ?principle ?as ?the ?universal ?principle ?of ?the translation ?work. ?Skopos ?theory ?holds ?that the translation is a purposive activity based on the original text, which must be completed through the joint negotiation of the author and reader. The translation must follow a series of ?principles, ?among ?which ?the ?Skopos ?rule ?top the ?list. ?In ?other ?words, ?the ?translation depends on the purpose of the translation.
According to the Skopos Theory, the expected communicative purpose of the target text ?determines ?the ?translation ?method ?and ?the translation ?strategy ?adopted ?by ?the translator. ?Therefore, ?as ?the ?evaluation ?standard ?of ?translation, ?the ?Skopos ?rule ?is obviously the most important, and the coherence rule and fidelity rule are second to none. (Yang Yujie, 2008: 159-160)
2.2 Three Rules of the Skopos Theory
2.2.1 Skopos Rule
The ?translator ?needs ?to ?analyze ?the ?source ?text ?before ?starting ?the ?translation. ?The purpose of analysis is to find out the text author’s purpose, and the translator can proceed from this translation purpose as the direction. Most translation activities can achieve more than one translation purposes, but the realization of translation purpose should be strictly arranged according to its importance. ( Reiss，
2004:36)Chapter III Description of Translation Process ················· 9
The ?Skopos ?Rule ?believes ?that ?the ?first ?rule ?should ?be ?followed ?by ?all ?translation activities is the "Skopos Rule", that is, the translation should be able to take effect in the context ?of ?the ?translation ?of ?the ?language ?and ?culture, ?in ?the ?way ?that ?the ?readers ?of ?the translation are expected. The purpose of the translation behavior determines the process of the ?entire ?translation, ?that ?is, ?the ?desired outcome ?determines ?the ?translation ?method ?and strategy. In a word, the translator should clarify the specific purpose in a given translation context, ?that ?is, ?clarify ?the ?purpose ?of ?political ?news ?translation, ?and ?decide ?which translation method to use according to this purpose.
2.2.2 Coherence Rule
The coherence rule refers to “internal coherence within a text”, which means that the translation must be acceptable in terms of meaning and conform to the reading habits of the ?target ?language ?readers ?(Reiss ?and ?Vermeer, ?1984, ?quoted ?in ?Nord, ?2001; ?32). ?The translator should ?use ?some ?translation ?strategies ?to ?make ?the ?translation ?context ?more coherent ?and ?readable, ?so ?that ?the ?target ?reader ?can understand ?the ?text ?with ?a ?specific knowledge background and context.