With the growing surge in global money-laundering, money laundering, the means resorted to all means, accompanied by a large number of money-laundering crime, rampant, undermining the country's political stability and economic functioning. Living in developing countries, money-laundering activities in China in recent years also showed the increasing trend , impacting on the national economy, social stability. Money launderers, generally use financial institutions, particularly commercial banks as the main channel for dirty money bleaching. Commercial banks play an important part in the anti-money laundering. Pairs of anti-money laundering preventing and monitoring must be based on commercial banks as the main part, how to effectively prevent and monitor, to maximize curbing money laundering has been a widespread cause for concern in commercial banks, which, at present, is mainly through routine monitoring and surveillance reporting. In view of the harmful action of money laundering and in connection with current prevailing commercial banks' low quality of suspicious transactional report , affecting the effectiveness of anti-money laundering, and anti-money laundering cash management issues, this paper gives some recommendations and measures to "A" commercial bank from the point of view of the theory and practice through the study of risk-based anti-money laundering theoretical approach, with the foreign anti-money laundering practices and domestic reality. Studying on practice of a bank abroad in risk-based approach used on anti-money laundering , combining theoretical researches of domestic scholars, considering "A" commercial bank anti-money laundering current situation, specifically from the operational level, the writer provides a theoretical basis and practical steps for "A" bank in anti-money laundering's risk-based approach, and suggests cash management regulations on the proposed amendments and equal emphasis on the management of cash access, meanwhile, Furthering strengthen cooperation and supervising from an objective standard to the subjective criteria of change to ensure the implementation of risk-based approach. Risk-based approach in anti-money laundering as the leading role , with a number of measures to match real-world practical problems. factors of strategic alliance in the small and medium enterprises of china
Literature review offers a summary of a comprehensive knowledge and information on the particular research topic, i.e. my research topic concerns: will the same business strategies work for small and medium enterprises in both China during the economy recession. It should include description, summary and critical evaluation of the row materials that is related to the research topic I chosen. This process can be done through reading academic books, journal articles, conference papers, online data resources etc (Literature Review, 2009).
The purpose of the literature review of my project is to identify the relevant information and outline the existing knowledge, i.e. evaluate the key factors of strategic alliance that have important impact on how well the small medium enterprises do their strategic alliance. After done the research, it will give me an idea of how to address the research problem. Once the research problem is defined, a hypothesis has to be developed and testified. The outcome of research results will help me to produce a rationale conclusion and recommendations for my research project.
2.1 Definition of strategic alliance:
Strategic alliances can take many forms, from the agreement between the local pharmacist and the local health food shop to cross promote each other, to the alliances between the major airlines of the world to pool their frequent flyer programmes. (Paul,F,2000) Thus while A.C.Pellicelli( 2003) conceptualizes of strategic alliance as a agreements between companies (partners) to reach objectives of a common interest. David C. Mowery(1996) using a mechanical analogy, suggest that A Strategic Alliance is a formal relationship between two or more parties to pursue a set of agreed upon goals and argue that strategic alliance is focus on meet a critical business need while remaining independent organizations. In 2000, Ali.Abbas believe that alliances are among the various options which companies can use to achieve their goals; they are based on cooperation between companies. The description “strategic” limits the field to alliances that are important to the partners and have broad horizons.
Reed and DeFillippi (1990) identify three resource characteristics that give rise to causal ambiguity: tacitness, complexity, and specificity that due to the more a firm's resources are characterized by imperfect mobility, imperfect imitability, and imperfect substitutability, the more likely the firm will get involved in strategic alliances.
Since an organization receives knowledge and information from external sources, the characteristics of the relationships it maintains with alliance partners can also have a significant effect on its absorptive capacity as well as on its level of innovation (Dyer & Singh, 1998; Koza & Lewin, 1998).
For our purposes though - focusing on the small to medium enterprise markets that chinese dairy industry was define them to be an agreement, with some level of formality, between two unrelated businesses to share their marketing efforts and their client bases.
3. Reasons for strategic alliance:
In the global context, there are an increase number of companies begin to join together or join the alliance in order to continually striving to gain access to new markets and new supply sources, capitalize on technology, use assets better, and become more profitable.
A variety of theoretical reasons have been suggested to explain firms’ motives for forming strategic alliances. These reasons are examined in this section
(Inkpen, Andrew C., 2001)
On the other hand, the other factors include entering new markets, reducing manufacturing costs, and developing and diffusing new technologies rapidly. Alliances also are used to accelerate product introduction and overcome legal and trade barriers expeditiously due to the joint venture is often the fastest, most effective method of achieving objectives.( Bruce A. Walters, 2009)
4. Benfits of strategic alliance:
The benfits of strategic alliance is defined that companies’ realization of making use of the resources available to them from the strategic alliance in helping them maximinze their profits has resulted in the company have to join the alliance or joint venture with other companies.